Genealogy Gems in Confederate Citizens Files
My last two posts contained self-publishing tips. I decided to take a break and publish a research tip. The next post will continue with the self-publishing tips.
I recently discovered information on three of my ancestors in the Confederate Citizens Files while performing research using fold3.com (formerly footnote.com). The Confederate States of America (aka the Confederacy) was a government established by the eleven southern states that seceded from the United States during the Civil War. The Confederate Citizens Files were created during 1861-1865 and mainly consist of papers relating to civilians who were members of the Confederate States of America. These files contains papers such as bills and vouchers from individuals for services and supplies provided to the Confederate Government and claims against the government for damages.
The document titled Perpetuating evidence of slave abduction and harboring by the enemy is of particular interest when seeking information on enslaved ancestors. In 1861, the Congress of the Confederate States of American passed “an act to perpetuate testimony in cases of slaves abduction or harbored by the enemy, and other property seized, wasted, or destroyed by them”. This act allowed slave owners to appear before a judge or appropriate representative and make an affidavit of the loss of their property. Other individuals could submit oral or written evidence in support of the person’s claim. After all the evidence was collected the judge or his representative would state in his certificate of authentication whether the evidence was credible. This act was not meant to imply that the Confederate States were liable for making compensation for any of the property.
I located several documents in the Confederate Citizens File of Jefferson Flippo that provided information on three of my ancestors. My 3rd great grandparents, Sancho (aka Sanker) and Lucinda Shakespeare and their children were enslaved by Elijah Wigglesworth in Spotsylvania County, Virginia. Elijah died in the 1840’s and the Shakespeare family was separated in 1846 when his estate was divided among his wife and children.
Three of Sancho and Lucinda’s children: Richmond, Nancy and Matilda were then enslaved by Elijah’s daughter Almira and then Jefferson Flippo of Caroline County, Virginia when Almira married him in 1854. I have found a lot of information on Matilda both during and after slavery and have located some of her living descendants. However, I have not found much information on Richmond and Nancy.
The perpetuating evidence document for Jefferson Flippo was filed on October 21, 1862. It contained a list of individuals who were enslaved by Jefferson Flippo and secured their freedom by leaving with the Union soldiers. As I scanned the list I noticed the names of three of my ancestors: Richmond (age 26), Nancy (age 20) and Susan (age 1). From early research I believe that Nancy had a daughter named Susan in April 1861 while she was enslaved by Jefferson Flippo. Based on their ages I believe Richmond, Nancy and Susan listed in this document may be my Shakespeare ancestors.
As I looked further through the document I found several statements by individuals that provided additional insight. There was a sworn statement signed October 7th 1862 from Jefferson Flippo where he stated he was the legal owner of the slaves, Richmond, William, Nancy and Susan [illegible] until about the 1st day of Jun 1862. His statement also indicates that Richmond and William left on or about the 1st day of Jun 1862 and Nancy and Susan left about the middle of July.
Another page of the document contains the oral evidence given by Nelson Beasley and John T. Goodwin, neighbors of Jefferson Flippo and provides further insight. In addition to corroborating the information provided by Jefferson Flippo, they also indicate my ancestors were last seen in Fredericksburg. The final page in the document contains the certification of legal ownership by Philip Samuels, Justice of the Peace.
I now have some insight into what happened to Richmond, Nancy her daughter Susan but I still do no know what became of them. I now have many more questions. What surname did they use after they obtained their freedom? Where did they go? The oral evidence states they were last seen in Fredericksburg. Did they remain there or move to another location? Did they ever reunite with their family? Many of my Shakespeare ancestors did reunite in Caroline County, Virginia after slavery. However, I have not found any information to indicate Richmond and Nancy joined the rest of the family.
My great grandmother Louisa (who is Nancy’s sister) had a daughter named Susan whose age is very close to Nancy’s daughter named Susan. Are Louisa’s daughter and Nancy’s daughter the same person or different people who happened to be born around the same time? If they are the same person, does that mean something happened to Nancy? If so, what happened to her? These are all questions I must answer as I continue my quest to locate my Shakespeare ancestors.
Confederate Citizens Files are an excellent resource for researching the family history of both slave holding families and the individuals they enslaved. Unfortunately, the names of slaves are not indexed; therefore, those searching for their enslaved ancestors will have to search for the name of the slave owner and read each document to locate their ancestors.
Division of the Negroes and Money belonging to the Estate of Elijah Wiglesworth and Lot No 6. Drawn by Almira W. Wiglesworth. Will Book R, 1843-1846 Part 2 Page 271 Repository: Spotsylvania Court House, Spotsylvania, Virginia.
“Confederate Papers Relating to Citizens or Business Firms, 1861-65,” digital images, Fold3.com (http://www.fold3.com : accessed 26 November 2011), record for Jefferson Flippo, Caroline County, Virginia, Papers of Jefferson Flippo for perpetuating evidence of slaves abducted and harbored by the enemy, filed October 21, 1862, National Archives Record Group 109, War Department Collection of Confederate Records.